June 2 Time:10:00-11:00
Source: Building the Future of Health
During the nineteenth century it was debated whether ‘land’ could be described in terms of beauty or sublime, as these were words related to the experience of nature. It was then generally agreed that landscapes needed ‘that kind of beauty which is agreeable in a picture’ (Gilpin, 1802). Recently, however, the agenda for an understanding of landscapes has toppled towards more immediately embodied nature and landscape experiences instead through the arts (Carlson, 2014). One of the explanations why the aesthetic character of ‘the sublime’ has become relevant again, is that there is need for a revolt against industrialization and ruthless urbanization combined with an increasing acceptance of ecological ideals (Brady 2013). If this is the case, the notion of the sublime can be explained as a critique of the current inadequacy of imagination on how to build cities and manage natural resources.
In this session we will first elaborate on this notion and then discuss two examples, made by young landscape architects. A new generation of landscape architects is concerned with large-scale landscape transformations that both heal the physical aspects of these landscapes, as well as their experiential character. We thereby interpret the future of health as both a physical as well as an experiential phenomenon. The combined ecological and experiential character will be explained by use of a framework for six archetypical landscapes that each poses a different challenge for healing. In general, we acknowledge healing as a transformation process of both body and mind.
Deltas are of great importance to humans all over the world. Densely populated coastal areas where land arises from sea. An amazing gradient where two worlds meet and nature and humans traditionally proliferate. It is the area where one hears, smells and sees the awakening of nature between the ebb – and flood line. It is where the sailor exalts navigation to a form of art and where he falls dry with his boat to be alone and to enjoy the mind-expanding vastness. Yet these qualities increasingly disappear due to the great technical advances since the 19th century, which tried to control the marine dynamics of deltas to ensure safety of the hinterland against inundation.
The Delta Works in the Netherlands embody this. The masterpiece of the Delta Works meant the construction of a national icon: the Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier in Zeeland, which does not only withstand storm surges, but even controls the tides of the sea daily in its Eastern Scheldt. However, this permeable dam has resulted in the erosion of the intertidal area (1) and subsequently in an insatiable demand of sand, which increases annually due to sea-level rise. The intertidal area will have disappeared in about 2080 as a consequence of this sand hunger (2), with major social – and ecological problems as a result.
Besides sand hunger, Zeeland also suffers from space hunger. The rise of mass recreation in the past century has led to the cluttering of holiday parks in the hinterland of the delta, which destroy the lowlands and the sea in their vastness. Therefore, a holistic solution for the Zeeland delta does not only secure the intertidal area, but also encompasses the finding of a suitable place for recreation in its delta.
This is achieved by means of the deconstruction of the Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier and Grevelingendam, and using the resulting new marine dynamics (3) to promote the social – and ecological situation of the Eastern Scheldt. The new coastal defense systems (4-6) protect the hinterland from inundation, grows along with sea-level rise, and is in itself a new landscape entity of Zeeland in which the function of recreation becomes integrated into the landscape (7-11). This way Zeeland is strengthened integrally between sea and land and the Eastern Scheldt (12) is transformed from a nature – to a human reserve, where all interactions live together as an obviousness.
Figure 1: The Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier caused a decrease of tidal volume and thereby shifted the marine dynamics from a sand exporting – to a sand importing system.
Figure 2: As a consequence of the shift in marine dynamics the intertidal area will mostly have dissappeared in 2080.
Figure 3: The Eastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier is deconstructed along with the Grevelingendam. The new marine dynamics are used to stimulate the social – and ecological situation of the Eastern Scheldt.
Figure 4,5,6: The new multifunctional coastal defense systems do not only answer the social – and ecological situation of the region, but also their cultural history aesthetically.
Figure 7: Watervillages become part of the new coastal defense systems, unveiling the qualities of the delta to its visitors
Figure 8: Neeltje Jans, the terrain section of the barrier, as the symbol of the old – and the new relation between man and water.
Figure 9, 10: Former parts of the barrier become breakwaters and borders to protect the new heritage and the most vulnerable shores at the mouth of the Eastern Scheldt.
Figure 11: Surf village Neeltje Jans
Figure 12 Human reserve Eastern Scheldt in which all interactions (co-)exist as an obviousness.
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Koen Steegers (firstname.lastname@example.org)
_OVERIGE_ door Rosanne Schrijver en Cor Simon A reflection of the opening of the academic year of the Wageningen University. It is striking how the controversial discipline of landscape architecture within the Wageningen University now seems to play an essential…
the whole opening ceremony can be watched here (there are green marks, for each new session in the whole video – the landscape machine part is at the fourth green marker).
Here is the complete video of the e-lecture on landscape machines.
It contains some minor technical failures, as were part of the original e-lecture,
Yours, Paul R.
OPEN eLECTURE –
Teaching Landscape Architecture series – teachers for teachers
Monday evening 27.4.2015
18:00-19:30 CET Moderation by Elke MERTENS & Nilgul KARADENIZ Lecturer: Paul Roncken
Title: How to design a landscape machine This lecture is about the design of productive landscapes. If designed well, landscapes can purify the air, detoxify the soil and raise the water quality of both surface water and underground water reserves. Well-designed landscapes also supply the necessary terrain for plants, mammals, birds and insects to find nurture and shelter and use migration routes. At the same time, these thriving natural landscapes can provide food and other resources that are in daily demand. The intricate performance of landscapes is not merely beautiful and a general commodity, it entails a sublime ambition and is in need of design. By the design concept of the Landscape Machine a provocative and somewhat paradoxical idea is introduced. The central idea is to offer a practical but nonetheless visionary answer to the growing concern of large scale landscape development. The increasing trend of urbanisation will not cease being dependent upon a range of services provided by the performance of landscapes. At the same time the often idealized urban-rural duality is in need of a serious update. While many designers and urban developers focus on building innovation and smaller production cycles, the landscape machine design laboratory (www.landscapemachines.com) claims that such developments will be only marginally effective. The majority of the earths landmass will not be urbanized and remain landscape or inhabitable wilderness. There is an improved idea needed to combine ecological thinking and systemic technology to develop landscapes that can be both productive and natural reserves. By a combined intellec tual and artistic effort, the concept of the landscape machine includes decades of ecological understanding, challenging aesthetic experiences, practical environmental concerns and replenishable technological advancements.
– the concept of the landscape machine will be explained
– a few design examples will be explained
– the method to design such a complex and large scale intervention is discussed (interactive)
Paul Roncken (1972) is an assistant professor at the landscape architecture department, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. You can read more of his ideas and work at http://www.paulroncken.com and http://www.landscapemachines.com via LE:NOTRE – Calendar.